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Towards a functional cure of HIV-1: insight in the chromatin landscape of the provirus

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel

Despite potent combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 infection persists due to irreversible integration of the virus in long-living cells of the immune system. The main focus of HIV-1 cure strategies has been on HIV-1 eradication, yet without great success so far. Therefore, HIV-1 remission or a functional cure, whereby the virus is silenced rather than eradicated, is considered as an alternative strategy. Elite controllers, individuals who spontaneously control HIV-1, may point us the way toward a functional HIV-1 cure. In order to achieve such a cure, a profound understanding of the mechanisms controlling HIV-1 expression and silencing is needed. In recent years, evidence has grown that the site of integration as well as the chromatin landscape surrounding the integration site affects the transcriptional state of the provirus. Still, at present, the impact of integration site selection on the establishment and maintenance of the HIV-1 reservoirs remains poorly understood. The discovery of LEDGF/p75 as a binding partner of HIV-1 integrase has led to a better understanding of integration site selection. LEDGF/p75 is one of the important determinants of integration site selection and targets integration toward active genes. In this review, we will provide an overview of the most important determinants of integration site selection. Secondly, we will discuss the chromatin landscape at the integration site and its implications on HIV-1 gene expression and silencing. Finally, we will discuss how interventions that affect integration site selection or modifications of the chromatin could yield a functional cure of HIV-1 infection.
Tijdschrift: Frontiers in Microbiology
Volume: 12
Aantal pagina's: 12
Jaar van publicatie:2021