Presence and fate of antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistance genes and zoonotic bacteria during biological swine manure treatment
Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel
The presence and dissemination of antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistance genes and zoonotic bacteria in the environment is of growing concern worldwide. Manure management practices, such as biological removal of nitrogen from swine manure, may help to decrease levels of antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistance genes and zoonotic bacteria present in manure before fertilization, thereby reducing environmental contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor the presence and fate of seven antibiotic residues (colistin, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, ceftiofur and tylosin A), nine antibiotic resistance genes (tet(B), tet(L), tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), erm(B), erm(F) and sul2) and two zoonotic bacteria (Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter coli) during biological nitrogen removal from swine manure over time. Samples from the raw manure, the solid fraction, the liquid fraction and the storage lagoon were analyzed on two farms at six time points with an interval of two weeks. Only the antibiotics which were used during the three months preceding the first sampling could be detected before and after biological nitrogen removal from swine manure. Of all the antibiotics studied, doxycycline was recovered in all of the samples and sulfadiazine was recovered in most samples on both farms. For both antibiotics, there appears to be a reduction of the amount of residues present in the storage lagoon compared to the liquid fraction, however, this reduction was not statistically significant. A significant reduction of the relative abundances of most of the antibiotic resistance genes studied was observed when comparing the liquid fraction and the storage lagoon. For tet(L), no differences were observed between the fractions sampled and for sul2 and erm(F), a significant increase in relative abundances was observed on the second farm sampled. For the zoonotic bacteria, a reduction of at least 1 log was observed after biological nitrogen removal from swine manure. The results indicate that the concentration of certain antibiotic residues and several antibiotic resistance genes and the amount of zoonotic bacteria present in the manure may be reduced in the end product of the biological nitrogen removal from swine manure.