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Antigenic Targets of Patient and Maternal Autoantibodies in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Tijdschriftbijdrage - Review Artikel
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder whose behavioral symptoms become apparent in early childhood. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are only partially understood and the clinical manifestations are heterogeneous in nature, which poses a major challenge for diagnosis, prognosis and intervention. In the last years, an important role of a dysregulated immune system in ASD has emerged, but the mechanisms connecting this to a disruption of brain development are still largely unknown. Although ASD is not considered as a typical autoimmune disease, self-reactive antibodies or autoantibodies against a wide variety of targets have been found in a subset of ASD patients. In addition, autoantibodies reactive to fetal brain proteins have also been described in the prenatal stage of neurodevelopment, where they can be transferred from the mother to the fetus by transplacental transport. In this review, we give an extensive overview of the antibodies described in ASD according to their target antigens, their different origins, and timing of exposure during neurodevelopment.
Tijdschrift: FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY
Aantal pagina's: 18
Jaar van publicatie:2019
Trefwoorden:autism, immunoglobulins, brain antigens, neurodevelopement, placental transfer