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24(S),25-Epoxycholesterol and cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) overexpression promote midbrain dopaminergic neurogenesis in vivo.

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The liver X receptors Lxrα/NR1H3 and Lxrβ/NR1H2 are ligand-dependent nuclear receptors critical for midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neuron development. We found previously that 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol (24,25-EC), the most potent and abundant Lxr ligand in the developing mouse midbrain, promotes mDA neurogenesis in vitro In this study, we demonstrate that 24,25-EC promotes mDA neurogenesis in an Lxr-dependent manner in the developing mouse midbrain in vivo and also prevents toxicity induced by the Lxr inhibitor geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. Furthermore, using MS, we show that overexpression of human cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) increases the levels of both 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (24-HC) and 24,25-EC in the developing midbrain, resulting in a specific increase in mDA neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo, but has no effect on oculomotor or red nucleus neurogenesis. 24-HC, unlike 24,25-EC, did not affect in vitro neurogenesis, indicating that the neurogenic effect of 24,25-EC on mDA neurons is specific. Combined, our results indicate that increased levels of 24,25-EC in vivo, by intracerebroventricular delivery in WT mice or by overexpression of its biosynthetic enzyme CYP46A1, specifically promote mDA neurogenesis. We propose that increasing the levels of 24,25-EC in vivo may be a useful strategy to combat the loss of mDA neurons in Parkinson's disease.
Tijdschrift: Journal of Biological Chemistry
ISSN: 0021-9258
Issue: 11
Volume: 294
Pagina's: 4169 - 4176
Jaar van publicatie:2019