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Effect of process-induced common bean hardness on structural properties of in vivo generated boluses and consequences for in vitro starch digestion kinetics
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
In the present study, we evaluated the effect of process-induced common bean hardness on structural properties of in vivo generated boluses and the consequences for in vitro starch digestion. Initially, the impact of human mastication on the particle size distribution (PSD) of oral boluses from common beans with different process-induced hardness levels was investigated through a mastication study. Then the effect of structural properties of selected boluses on in vitro starch digestion kinetics was assessed. For a particular process-induced hardness level, oral boluses had similar PSD despite differences in masticatory parameters between participants of the mastication study. At different hardness levels, a clear effect of processing (P<0·0001) was observed. However, the effect of mastication behaviour (P=0·1141) was not significant. Two distinctive fractions were present in all boluses. The first one was a cotyledon-rich fraction consisting of majorly small particles (40–125 µm), which could be described as individual cells based on microscopic observations. This fraction increased with a decrease in process-induced hardness. The second fraction (>2000 µm) mostly contained seed coat material and did not change based on hardness levels. The in vitro starch digestion kinetics of common bean boluses was only affected by process-induced hardness. After kinetic modelling, significant differences were observed between the reaction rate constant of boluses generated from the hardest beans and those obtained from softer ones. Overall this work demonstrated that the in vitro nutritional functionality of common beans is affected to a greater extent by structural properties induced by processing than by mechanical degradation in the mouth.
Journal: British Journal of Nutrition
Pages: 388 - 399