Hong Kong independent comics
This research aims at exploring Hong Kong manhua (graphic novels and cartoons that are produced by independent artists) produced since 2000s with the focus on their nostalgic themes and transmedial forms using an open and cross-cultural approach. The term 'manhua' is broadly equivalent to 'comics', but it has a linege to Japanese manga in which it encompasses from long-form narrative comics to single-panel cartoons. The corpus focuses on post-2000s productions created independent artists regardless of the publishing format and method. In other words, those works are sometimes coined as 'independent manhua' as an alternative to studio-produced comics.