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Mixing of magmatic-hydrothermal and metamorphic fluids and the origin of peribatholitic Sn vein-type deposits in Rwanda

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. The fluid sources of granite-related Sn-quartz vein deposits are commonly obscured by fluid mixing or fluid-rock interactions. As a result, fluid inclusions, minerals and isotopes in these veins indicate an intermediate composition between magmatic and metamorphic, but the degree of mixing between these endmembers is currently unquantified. This study presents a novel quantitative approach to assess the degree of mixing between magmatic-hydrothermal and external metamorphic fluids in the formation of peribatholitic Sn-quartz veins. In particular, fluid mixing in the Sn-mineralized Rwamagana-Musha-Ntunga pegmatite-quartz vein field in East Rwanda has been evaluated by the following four methods: quartz stable isotopes, muscovite geochemistry, fluid inclusion microthermometry and LA-ICP-MS, and geochemical modelling. The quartz stable isotope data (δ18O: +13.1 to +15.8‰ V-SMOW; δD: −27.6 to −59.7‰ V-SMOW) cannot uniquely differentiate between a metamorphic fluid origin or an initial magmatic hydrothermal fluid origin with subsequent metamorphic fluid mixing or host-rock interaction. However, granitophile element concentrations in magmatic muscovite from pegmatites and hydrothermal muscovite from associated Sn-quartz veins are equally high, indicating a close genetic link (Rb: 530–8740 ppm, Li: 110–1990 ppm, Sn: 87–810 ppm, Cs: 62–420 ppm). Primary H2O-CO2-N2-NaCl medium saline magmatic fluid inclusions in quartz of pegmatites (∼12.7 wt% NaCleq) and H2O-CO2-(N2)-NaCl low saline fluid inclusions in barren metamorphic quartz veins (∼4.9 wt% NaCleq) were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. These results show an enrichment in Li, Rb, Sn and Cs for the magmatic fluid, while the metamorphic fluid is characterized by low granitophile element concentrations and high Sr and Ba contents. The expected Rb-Cs and Rb-Sn signature of the Sn-quartz vein muscovite was modelled using the measured fluid endmember compositions, confirming mixing between magmatic and metamorphic fluids in the formation of the veins. The quantification suggests that the hydrothermal Sn-quartz vein fluid contains 5–80% of an external metamorphic fluid component.
Journal: Ore Geology Reviews
ISSN: 0169-1368
Volume: 101
Pages: 481 - 501
Number of pages: 21
Publication year:2018
Keywords:Geosciences & technology, Mineralogy & petrology