< Back to previous page
How has the European Union counterbalanced Respect for Multiculturalization with the Protection of European Cultures?
Book Contribution - Book Chapter Conference Contribution
This article analyzes the approach of the European Union (EU) to the trade and culture debate and its development. Focusing on the potential conflict between the respect for multiculturalization and the protection of European cultures, this paper examines not only the historical background of the EU’s stance on the trade and culture debate but also the clauses regarding audiovisual services in the EU–South Korea Free Trade Agreement (FTA) as an example of the EU’s policy development after the adoption of the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (the UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity). Through these analyses, this article arrives at the following conclusions. First, the EU’s traditional approach in the trade and culture debate was based on the protection of European cultures; this approach was caused by fear of the diffusion of the US Hollywood cinema and by the importance of the audiovisual industry to European identities and unity. Second, since the introduction of the concept of cultural diversity in the UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity, the rhetorical focus of the EU’s stance on the trade and culture debate has changed from the protection of European cultures to the combination of the respect for multiculturalization and the protection of European cultures. This new focus of the EU has two guiding principles: the promotion of European cultures and reciprocity. However, given the paucity of actual results of audiovisual co-production through the cultural protocol in the EU–South Korea FTA, it can be argued the EU’s traditional focus on the protection of European cultures continues to dominate its approach mainly because of the EU’s continuing fear of competitive foreign cultural content.
Book: Working Paper Series
Pages: 1 - 22