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In vitro antifungal susceptibility of yeast and mold phases of isolates of dimorphic fungal pathogen emergomyces africanus (Formerly Emmonsia sp.) from HIV-infected South African patients

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel

Disseminated emmonsiosis is an important AIDS-related mycosis in South Africa that is caused by Emergomyces africanus, a newly described and renamed dimorphic fungal pathogen. In vitro antifungal susceptibility data can guide management. Identification of invasive clinical isolates was confirmed phenotypically and by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. Yeast and mold phase MICs of fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin, micafungin, and flucytosine were determined with custom-made frozen broth microdilution (BMD) panels in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. MICs of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole were determined by Etest. Fifty unique E. africanus isolates were tested. The yeast and mold phase geometric mean (GM) BMD and Etest MICs of itraconazole were 0.01 mg/liter. The voriconazole and posaconazole GM BMD MICs were 0.01 mg/liter for both phases, while the GM Etest MICs were 0.001 and 0.002 mg/liter, respectively. The fluconazole GM BMD MICs were 0.18 mg/liter for both phases. The GM Etest MICs of amphotericin B, for the yeast and mold phases were 0.03 and 0.01 mg/liter. The echinocandins and flucytosine had very limited in vitro activity. Treatment and outcome data were available for 37 patients; in a multivariable model including MIC data, only isolation from blood (odds ratio [OR], 8.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 54.4; P = 0.02) or bone marrow (OR, 12.1; 95% CI, 1.2 to 120.2; P = 0.03) (versus skin biopsy) was associated with death. In vitro susceptibility data support the management of disseminated emmonsiosis with amphotericin B, followed by itraconazole, voriconazole, or posaconazole. Fluconazole was a relatively less potent agent.
Tijdschrift: Journal of clinical microbiology
ISSN: 0095-1137
Volume: 55
Pagina's: 1812 - 1820
Jaar van publicatie:2017
Trefwoorden:A1 Journal article
BOF-keylabel:ja
BOF-publication weight:2
CSS-citation score:2
Auteurs:International
Authors from:Higher Education
Toegankelijkheid:Open