Ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia in coronavirus 2019 disease, a retrospective monocentric cohort study
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INTRODUCTION: Severe coronavirus 2019 disease (CoViD-19) may lead to respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation. Therefore, ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) may complicate the course of the disease. The aim of the current article was to investigate possible predictive factors for bacterial VAP on a retrospective manner, in a cohort of mechanically ventilated CoViD-19 patients. Additionally, determinant factors of lethality were analyzed.
METHODS: Medical records of patients hospitalized in the intensive care units (ICU) at the university hospital UZ Brussel during the epidemic were reviewed. VAP was defined following the National Healthcare Safety Network 2017 criteria. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions analyses were performed.
RESULTS: Among the 39 patients included in the study, 54% were diagnosed with bacterial VAP. Case fatality rate was 44%, but 59% of the deceased patients had a do-not-resuscitate status. Multivariate logistic regression for prediction of VAP showed significant differences in duration of ICU hospitalization and in minimal lung compliance. Additional analyses were performed on CoViD-19 patients who were affected by bacterial respiratory superinfection. The responsible pathogens correspond to the commonly found bacteria in VAP. However, 71% of the isolated germs were multi-drug resistant and bacteraemia was reported in 38%. Multivariate analyses for prediction of lethality found significant difference in SOFA score.
CONCLUSIONS: Mechanically ventilated CoViD-19 patients might frequently develop VAP. Longer ICU hospitalization was associated with pulmonary superinfection in the current cohort. Moreover, decreased minimal lung compliance was correlated to VAP and higher SOFA score at VAP diagnosis was associated with lethality.