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Three motivation-based interventions to improve physical activity in populations at risk. Effects and feasibility

Boek - Dissertatie

In a greying society, the possible benefits from physical activity [PA] regarding independence and different aspects of health are frequently emphasized. Furthermore, recent research shows a strong association between healthy ageing and a physically active lifestyle, even when adopted at a later age (Hamer, Lavoie, & Bacon, 2013). Within the Physical Activity, Sports & Health research group, in previous doctoral projects interventions were already set up, based on the Self-determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), to satisfy psychological basic needs and aimed at enhancing a physically active lifestyle. These showed promising short- and long-term effects with less active adults and elderly (e.g.; Opdenacker, Delecluse, & Boen, 2011; Pelsserset al., 2013; Van Hoecke et al., 2012). Building on this research, in this doctoral project new PA lifestyleinterventions will be designed and evaluated, which are framed within the following theories:(1) The Self-determination Theory [SDT] (Deci & Ryan, 1985): this theory integrates different mini-motivational theories which all stress the importance of internalized motives.(2) The Social Identity Approach [SIA] (Haslam, 2004): the extent to which one sees himself as a member of a groupand the dominant norms in that group form a basis to explain behavior. However previous studies already tried to integrate both theories, barely attention was paid to combinations of partial constructs, let alone taking into account a chronological aspect (e.g.; developing a feeling of guilt either through external pressure or trough reflective processes). Nevertheless, there are biological evolutionary reasons to do so and with it to focus more on individual context differencesand the distinction between psychological need satisfaction and psychological need frustration, according to the SDT (e.g.; the necessity of a safe environment – a lack of frustrations). Neither has the impact of PA-interventions in society frequently been evaluated. In this doctoral project, this will be compared with the RE-AIM criteria (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance). In addition, previous research in this area seldom included clinical populations. Therefore, in this doctoral project will be cooperated with health companies that reach persons with mental disorders on one hand and persons with diabetes type 2 on the other. On average, these people are of older age and show interesting similarities with elderly in general. So for example, they are often stigmatized and have deficient levels of PA, fitness and health (proper to the illness and via comorbidities). Furthermore this doctoral project will try to measure the whole continuum of PA in a valid way, based on objective and subjective methods. In this way, it is possible to distinguish conceptually between alack of PA on one hand and an abundance of extremely low activity (e.g.; sitting) on the other. This is a recent scientific development that needs further substantiation (Chau et al., 2013). Concretely, in this doctoral project the following is being expected in the elderly and each of the (sub)populations:(1) positiveeffects of PA lifestyle interventions with regard to physical activity and fitness and specific health variables (e.g.; less blood glucose in diabetics, less depressive feelings in depressed persons), in particular noticeable in the long term,(2) that the predicted effects will be explained by psychological processes, such as:a) the adoption of insight, which increases the possibility of lasting effects;b)the fulfillment of psychological basic needs (SDT), to which frustrations inhibit pursuing positive feelings. References Chau, J. Y., Grunseit, A. C., Chey, T., Stamatakis, E., Brown, W. J., Matthews, C. E., . . . van der Ploeg, H. P. (2013). Daily sitting time and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 8(11). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080000 Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. New York: Plenum. Hamer, M., Lavoie, L. K., & Bacon, L. S. (2013). Taking up physical activity in later life and healthy ageing: the English longitudinal study of ageing. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(3), 239-243. Haslam, S. A. (2004). Psychology in organizations: The social identity approach. London: Sage. Opdenacker, J., Delecluse, C., & Boen, F. (2011). A 2-year follow-up of a lifestyle physical activity versus a structured exercise intervention in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 59, 1602-1611. Pelssers, J., Delecluse, C., Opdenacker, J., Kennis, E., Roie, E. V., & Boen, F. (2013). “Every step counts!”: effects of a structured walking intervention in a community-based senior organization. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 21, 167-185. Van Hoecke, A.-S., Delecluse, C., Opdenacker, J., Lipkens, L., Martien, S., & Boen, F. (2012). Long-term effectiveness and mediators of a need-supportive physical activity coaching amongFlemish sedentary adults. Health promotion international, 28(3), 407-417.
Jaar van publicatie:2017