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Small-sized conduits in the right ventricular outflow tract in young children : bicuspidalized homografts are a good alternative to standard conduits

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Downsizing a homograft (HG) through bicuspidalization has been used for more than 2 decades to overcome the shortage of small-sized conduits for reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in young children. Our goal was to investigate the durability of bicuspidalized HGs compared with other small HGs. A retrospective analysis of 93 conduits <= 20 mm, implanted over 23 years, was performed. The end-points were survival, structural valve degeneration and conduit replacement. The conduits comprised 40 pulmonary HGs, 12 aortic HGs, 17 bicuspidalized HGs and 24 xenografts. The median age, mean conduit diameter and z-value at implantation were 1.4 (interquartile range 0.3-3) years, 16.5 +/- 2.7 mm and 2.8 +/- 1.3, respectively. Valve position was heterotopic in 59 patients and orthotopic in 34 patients. At a mean follow-up period of 7.6 +/- 5.9 years, the hospital survival rate was 89%. Freedom from explant at 5 and 10 years was 83 +/- 5% and 52 +/- 6%, respectively. Freedom from structural valve degeneration was 79 +/- 5% at 5 years and 47 +/- 6% at 10 years [68 +/- 8% for pulmonary HG, 42 +/- 16% for bicuspidalized HG, 31 +/- 15% for aortic HG and 20 +/- 9% for xenografts (log rank P < 0.001)]. Multivariable analysis indicated an increased risk for structural valve degeneration with smaller conduit size (hazard ratio 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.67-0.94; P < 0.008), extra-anatomic position (hazard ratio 2.71, 95% confidence interval 1.33-5.50; P = 0.006) and the use of xenografts compared with non-downsized pulmonary HGs (hazard ratio 4.90, 95% confidence interval 2.23-10.76; P < 0.001). Appropriately sized pulmonary HGs remain the most durable option for a right ventricular outflow tract conduit in young children. However, when a small pulmonary HG is unavailable, bicuspidalization offers a valid alternative, preferable to xenograft conduits, at mid-term follow-up.
Tijdschrift: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
ISSN: 1010-7940
Issue: 2
Volume: 53
Pagina's: 409 - 415
Jaar van publicatie:2018