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Risk factors associated with severe RSV infection in infants

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel

Ondertitel:what is the role of viral co-infections?
The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) represents the leading cause of viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. The clinical picture of an RSV infection differs substantially between patients, and the role of viral co-infections is poorly investigated. During two consecutive winter seasons from October 2018 until February 2020, we prospectively included children up to 2 years old presenting with an acute LRTI, both ambulatory and hospitalized. We collected clinical data and tested nasopharyngeal secretions for a panel of 16 different respiratory viruses with multiplex RT-qPCR. Disease severity was assessed with traditional clinical parameters and scoring systems. A total of 120 patients were included, of which 91.7% were RSV positive; 42.5% of RSV-positive patients had a co-infection with at least one other respiratory virus. We found that patients suffering from a single RSV infection had higher pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission rates (OR = 5.9, 95% CI = 1.53 to 22.74), longer duration of hospitalization (IRR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.52), and a higher Bronchiolitis Risk of Admission Score (BRAS) (IRR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.70) compared to patients with RSV co-infections. No significant difference was found in saturation on admission, O-2 need, or ReSViNET-score. In our cohort, patients with a single RSV infection had increased disease severity compared to patients with RSV co-infections. This suggests that the presence of viral co-infections might influence the course of RSV bronchiolitis, but heterogeneity and small sample size in our study prevents us from drawing strong conclusions.IMPORTANCE RSV is worldwide the leading cause of serious airway infections. Up to 90% of children will be infected by the age of 2. RSV symptoms are mostly mild and typically mimic a common cold in older children and adolescents, but younger children can develop severe lower respiratory tract disease, and currently it is unclear why certain children develop severe disease while others do not. In this study, we found that children with a single RSV infection had a higher disease severity compared to patients with viral co-infections, suggesting that the presence of a viral co-infection could influence the course of an RSV bronchiolitis. As preventive and therapeutic options for RSV-associated disease are currently limited, this finding could potentially guide physicians to decide which patients might benefit from current or future treatment options early in the course of disease, and therefore, warrants further investigation. RSV is worldwide the leading cause of serious airway infections. Up to 90% of children will be infected by the age of 2.
Tijdschrift: Microbiology spectrum
ISSN: 2165-0497
Volume: 11
Pagina's: 1 - 11
Jaar van publicatie:2023
Trefwoorden:A1 Journal article
Toegankelijkheid:Open