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Revisiting the origin of interleukin 1 (IL-1) based on biological activities of IL-1 in anamniotes and their sub-functionalization in amniotes

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel

The cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) is an evolutionary innovation of vertebrates. Fish and amphibian have one IL1 gene, while mammals have two copies of IL1, IL1A and IL1B, with distinct expression patterns and differences in their proteolytic activation. Our current understanding of the evolutionary history of IL-1 is mainly based on phylogenetic analysis, but this approach provides no information on potentially different functions of IL-1 homologues, and it remains unclear which biological activities identified for IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta in mammals are present in lower vertebrates. Here, we use in vitro and in vivo experimental models to examine the expression patterns and cleavage of IL-1 proteins from various species. We found that IL-1 in the teleost medaka shares the transcriptional patterns of mammalian IL-1 alpha, and its processing also resembles that of mammalian IL-1 alpha, which is sensitive to cysteine protease inhibitors specific for the calpain and cathepsin families. By contrast, IL-1 proteins in reptiles also include biological properties of IL-1 beta. Therefore, we propose that the duplication of the ancestral IL1 gene led to the segregation of expression patterns and protein processing that characterizes the two extant forms of IL-1 in mammals.

Tijdschrift: Open biology
Issue: 8
Volume: 12
Jaar van publicatie:2022
Trefwoorden:evolution, cytokine, medaka, innate immune system, INFLAMMATORY CASPASES, GENE-EXPRESSION, IL-1 FAMILY, PROTEASE, EVOLUTION, SECRETION, ROLES, IL-1-ALPHA, PLATFORM, ENZYME
Toegankelijkheid:Open