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Reversible hypothalamic obesity in a girl with suprasellar tuberculoma

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INTRODUCTION: Suprasellar tuberculoma are extremely rare in children and most of those patients present with headache, vomiting, visual disturbances, and hypofunction of the pituitary gland. In this case report, we present a girl with tuberculosis, who developed significant weight gain in combination with pituitary dysfunction, which recovered after antituberculosis treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: An 11-year old girl presented with headache, fever and anorexia that progressively evolved into an encephalopathic status with cranial nerves III and VI paresis. Brain MRI showed meningeal contrast capture along cranial nerves II (including optic chiasm), III, V and VI bilaterally and multiple contrast enhancing brain parenchyma lesions. Tuberculin skin test was negative but interferon-gamma release assay was positive. The clinical and radiological working diagnosis was consistent with tuberculous meningoencephalitis. Pulse corticosteroids for 3 days and quadruple antituberculosis therapy were started and the girl demonstrated obvious improvement of her neurological symptoms. However, after a few months of therapy she developed remarkable weight gain (+20 kg in 1 year) and growth arrest. Her hormone profile revealed insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] 6.8) despite putative growth hormone deficiency (circulating insulin-like growth factor-I [IGF-I] 104 μg/L [-2.4 SD]). Follow-up brain MRI showed a decrease in basal meningitis, but increased parenchymal lesions in the suprasellar region extending medially into the nucleus lentiformis, with now a voluminous tuberculoma at this site. Antituberculosis treatment was continued for a total of 18 months. The patient improved clinically, she regained her pre-illness Body Mass Index (BMI) SDS and her growth rate increased slightly. On the hormonal side, disappearance of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR 2.5) and an increase in IGF-I (175 μg/L, -1.4 SD) was noted, and her last brain MRI showed a remarkable volume reduction of the suprasellar tuberculoma. CONCLUSION: Suprasellar tuberculoma can have a very dynamic presentation during the active stage of the disease, which can be reversed by prolonged antituberculosis treatment. Previous studies showed that the tuberculous process can also cause long term and irreversible changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Prospective studies are however needed in the pediatric population to know the exact incidence and type of pituitary dysfunction.
Tijdschrift: HORMONE RESEARCH IN PAEDIATRICS
ISSN: 1663-2818
Issue: 2
Volume: 97
Pagina's: 165 - 171
Jaar van publicatie:2024
Toegankelijkheid:Closed