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Nucleation and Growth Mechanism of 2D SnS2 by Chemical Vapor Deposition: Initial 3D Growth Followed by 2D Lateral Growth

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© 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd. Tin disulfide (SnS2) is a n-type semiconductor with a hexagonally layered crystal structure and has promising applications in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and sensors. Such applications require the deposition of SnS2 with controlled crystallinity and thickness control at monolayer level on large area substrate. Here, we investigate the nucleation and growth mechanism of two-dimensional (2D) SnS2 by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using SnCl4 and H2S as precursors. We find that the growth mechanism of 2D SnS2 is different from the classical layer-by-layer growth mode, by which monolayer-thin 2D transition metal dichalcogenides can be formed. In the initial nucleation stage, isolated 2D SnS2 domains of several monolayers high are formed. Next, 2D SnS2 crystals grow laterally while keeping a nearly constant height until layer closure is achieved, due to the higher reactivity of SnS2 crystal edges than basal planes. We infer that the thickness of the 2D SnS2 crystals is determined by the height of initial SnS2 islands. After layer closure, SnS2 grows on grain boundaries and results in 3D growth mode, accompanied by spiral growth. Our findings suggest an approach to prepare 2D SnS2 with a controlled thickness of several monolayers and add more knowledge on the nucleation and growth mechanism of 2D materials.
Tijdschrift: 2D Materials
ISSN: 2053-1583
Issue: 3
Volume: 5
Pagina's: 035006 - 035006
Jaar van publicatie:2018