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NOD-like receptors interfacing the immune and reproductive systems

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Review Artikel

Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptors (NOD-like receptors, NLRs) are intracellular proteins that are chiefly known for their critical functions in inflammatory responses and host defense against microbial pathogens. Several NLRs have been demonstrated to assemble inflammasomes or to engage transcriptional signaling cascades that result in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and bactericidal factors. In recent years, NLRs have also emerged as key regulators of early mammalian embryogenesis and reproduction. A subset of phylogenetically related NLRs represents a new class of maternal effect genes that are highly expressed in maturing oocytes and pre-implantation embryos. Mutations in several of these NLRs have been linked to hereditary reproductive defects and imprinting diseases. In this review, we discuss the expression profiles, the emerging functions and molecular mode of action of these NLRs with newly recognized roles at the interfaces of the immune and reproductive systems. In addition, we provide an overview of coding mutations in NLRs that have been associated with human reproductive diseases, and outline crucial outstanding questions in this emerging research field.
Tijdschrift: FEBS Journal
ISSN: 1742-464X
Issue: 20
Volume: 281
Pagina's: 4568 - 4582
Jaar van publicatie:2014