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Mechanical ventilation impairs IL-17 cytokine family expression in ventilator-associated pneumonia

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel

Mechanical ventilation (MV) is the primary risk factor for the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Besides inducing a pro-inflammatory T-helper (Th)-1 cytokine response, MV also induces an anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokine response, marked by increased IL-4 secretion and reduced bacterial phagocytic capacity of rodent lung macrophages. Since IL-4 is known to downregulate both Th1 and Th17 cytokines, the latter is important in mediating mucosal immunity and combating bacterial and fungal growth, we studied and showed here in a rat model of MV that Th17 cytokines (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22) were significantly upregulated in the lung as a response to different MV strategies currently utilized in clinic. To study whether the increased IL-4 levels are associated with downregulation of the anti-bacterial Th17 cytokines, we subsequently challenged mechanically ventilated rats with an intratracheal inoculation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (VAP model) and showed a dramatic downregulation of IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22, compared to animals receiving the same bacterial burden without MV. For the studied Th1 cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β), only IFNγ showed a significant decrease as a consequence of bacterial infection in mechanically ventilated rats. We further studied IL-17A, the most studied IL-17 family member, in intensive care unit (ICU) pneumonia patients and showed that VAP patients had significantly lower levels of IL-17A in the endotracheal aspirate compared to patients entering ICU with pre-existing pneumonia. These translational data, obtained both in animal models and in humans, suggest that a deficient anti-bacterial Th17 response in the lung during MV is associated with VAP development.
Tijdschrift: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
ISSN: 1661-6596
Volume: 20
Aantal pagina's: 14
Jaar van publicatie:2019
Trefwoorden:Multidisciplinaire scheikunde , Biochemie & -fysica en Moleculaire biologie