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Gut microbiota alterations induced by intensive chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukaemia patients are associated with gut barrier dysfunction and body weight loss

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BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) chemotherapy has been reported to impact gut microbiota composition. In this study, we investigated using a multi -omics strategy the changes in the gut microbiome induced by AML intense therapy and their association with gut barrier function and cachectic hallmarks. METHODS: 10 AML patients, allocated to standard induction chemotherapy (SIC), were recruited. Samples and data were collected before any therapeutic intervention (T0), at the end of the SIC (T1) and at discharge (T4). Gut microbiota composition and function, markers of inflammation, metabolism, gut barrier function and cachexia, as well as faecal, blood and urine metabolomes were assessed. RESULTS: AML patients demonstrated decreased appetite, weight loss and muscle wasting during hospitalization, with an incidence of cachexia of 50%. AML intensive treatment transiently impaired the gut barrier function and led to a long-lasting change of gut microbiota composition characterized by an important loss of diversity. Lactobacillaceae and Campylobacter concisus were increased at T1 while Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus were increased at T4. Metabolomics analyses revealed a reduction in urinary hippurate and faecal bacterial amino acid metabolites (bAAm) (2-methylbutyrate, isovalerate, phenylacetate). Integration using DIABLO revealed a deep interconnection between all the datasets. Importantly, we identified bacteria which disappearance was associated with impaired gut barrier function (Odoribacter splanchnicus) and body weight loss (Gemmiger formicilis), suggesting these bacteria as actionable targets. CONCLUSION: AML intensive therapy transiently impairs the gut barrier function while inducing enduring alterations in the composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota that associate with body weight loss. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03881826, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03881826.
Tijdschrift: CLINICAL NUTRITION
ISSN: 0261-5614
Issue: 11
Volume: 42
Pagina's: 2214 - 2228
Jaar van publicatie:2023