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The formation of the copula function of wei and the nature of the U+2018wei vU+2019 construction

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel

This paper aims to explain the development of the copula function of wei and to show that wei in the U+201Cwei VU+201D construction is a copula during pre-Han times, rather than a passive marker. Therefore, in essence, the U+201Cwei VU+201D construction is a copula construction rather than a passive construction. In this analysis, we shall pay special attention to the U+201Cyi X wei YU+201D construction. We conclude that:1. The generalized copula function of wei derives from the U+201Cyi X wei YU+201D construction because of the disposal function of yi, and because wei absorbed the characteristics of the U+201Cyi X wei YU+201D construction. This conclusion is based on two observations:a. The unique features of wei as a copula are congruent with its function in the U+201Cyi X wei YU+201D construction.b. A change occurred from U+201CV yi weiU+201D to U+201CV weiU+201D indicating that wei replaced U+201Cyi weiU+201D to a certain degree (see Table 5 below).2. U+201CX wei VU+201D is an alternative of the U+201Cyi X wei VU+201D pattern when a causer (C) does not appear with wei in the same clause. This conclusion is further supported by the following three observations:a. U+201CYi X wei VU+201D and U+201CX wei VU+201D have the same (low) frequency.b. Both U+201Cyi X wei VU+201D and U+201Cwei VU+201D are very limited in their semantic range.c. The exchangeability of the U+201Cyi X wei VU+201D and U+201Cwei VU+201D constructions does not have any influence on their semantics. Therefore, the U+201CX wei VU+201D structure should be regarded as a copula construction. Although it would also be convenient to construe U+201CX wei VU+201D as a passive construction, it does not become so before the Han period because of the continued influence of the U+201Cyi X wei VU+201D construction.U+201CWei A VU+201D is formed through the omission of yi in the U+201Cyi X wei A VU+201D or, alternatively, through the addition of the agent A in U+201Cwei VU+201D, whereas U+201Cwei A (zhi) suo VU+201D is the consequence of U+201CA (zhi) suo VU+201D replacing U+201CA VU+201D in U+201Cwei A VU+201D. Therefore, none of the wei constructions in pre-Qin should be regarded as syntactically functioning as passive constructions. Rather, U+201Cwei A suo VU+201D became a common passive construction only in the Han Dynasty.U+6587U+7AE0U+5206U+6790U+4E86U+201CU+4E3AU+201DU+5B57U+529FU+80FDU+7684U+5F62U+6210U+8FC7U+7A0BU+FF0CU+5E76U+8BC1U+660EU+201CU+4E3AVU+201DU+7ED3U+6784U+4E2DU+7684U+201CU+4E3AU+201DU+5E94U+91CAU+4E3AU+7CFBU+8BCDU+FF0CU+800CU+975EU+88ABU+52A8U+6807U+8BB0U+3002U+56E0U+6B64U+FF0CU+201CU+4E3AVU+201DU+7ED3U+6784U+672CU+8D28U+4E0AU+662FU+7CFBU+8BCDU+7ED3U+6784U+800CU+975EU+88ABU+52A8U+7ED3U+6784U+3002U+672CU+6587U+4ECEU+5206U+6790U+201CU+4EE5XU+4E3AYU+201DU+7ED3U+6784U+51FAU+53D1U+FF0CU+5F97U+51FAU+4EE5U+4E0BU+7ED3U+8BBAU+FF1A U+4E00U+FF0CU+201CU+4E3AU+201DU+7684U+7CFBU+8BCDU+529FU+80FDU+6765U+81EAU+4E8EU+201CU+4EE5XU+4E3AYU+201DU+7ED3U+6784U+FF0CU+56E0U+4E3AU+201CU+4EE5U+201DU+7684U+5904U+7F6EU+529FU+80FDU+FF0CU+53CAU+201CU+4E3AU+201DU+5438U+6536U+4E86U+201CU+4EE5XU+4E3AYU+201DU+7ED3U+6784U+7684U+6784U+5F0FU+7279U+5F81U+3002U+8BE5U+7ED3U+8BBAU+57FAU+4E8EU+4E24U+4E2AU+4E8BU+5B9EU+FF1AU+FF081U+FF09U+201CU+4E3AU+201DU+4F5CU+4E3AU+7CFBU+8BCDU+7684U+529FU+80FDU+7279U+5F81U+548CU+201CU+4EE5XU+4E3AYU+201DU+7684U+6784U+5F0FU+7279U+5F81U+6709U+9AD8U+5EA6U+7684U+543BU+5408U+6027U+FF1BU+FF082U+FF09U+5B58U+5728U+201CVU+4EE5U+4E3AU+201DU+7701U+7565U+4E3AU+201CVU+4E3AU+201DU+7684U+660EU+663EU+53D1U+5C55U+8D8BU+52BFU+3002 U+4E8CU+FF0CU+5F53U+81F4U+4F7FU+8005U+4E0DU+548CU+201CU+4E3AU+201DU+5171U+73B0U+4E8EU+540CU+4E00U+4E2AU+4ECEU+53E5U+65F6U+FF0CU+201CXU+4E3AVU+201DU+662FU+201CU+4EE5XU+4E3AVU+201DU+7684U+53EFU+66FFU+6362U+9879U+3002U+8BE5U+7ED3U+8BBAU+57FAU+4E8EU+4E09U+4E2AU+4E8BU+5B9EU+FF1AU+FF081U+FF09U+4E8CU+8005U+7684U+4F7FU+7528U+9891U+7387U+5747U+8F83U+4F4EU+FF1BU+FF082U+FF09U+4E8CU+8005U+4E2DU+7684U+201CVU+201DU+7684U+8BEDU+4E49U+8303U+56F4U+5747U+975EU+5E38U+6709U+9650U+FF1BU+FF083U+FF09U+4E8CU+8005U+5177U+6709U+53EFU+4E92U+6362U+6027U+3002U+867DU+7136U+201CXU+4E3AVU+201DU+5177U+6709U+6210U+4E3AU+88ABU+52A8U+5F0FU+7684U+6F5CU+529BU+FF0CU+4F46U+56E0U+65E0U+6CD5U+6446U+8131U+201CU+4EE5XU+4E3AYU+201DU+7ED3U+6784U+7684U+5F71U+54CDU+800CU+6700U+7EC8U+6CA1U+6709U+53D1U+5C55U+6210U+4E3AU+6210U+719FU+7684U+88ABU+52A8U+5F0FU+3002 U+4E09U+FF0CU+201CU+4E3AAVU+201DU+53EFU+80FDU+662FU+201CU+4EE5XU+4E3AAVU+201DU+7701U+7565U+201CU+4EE5U+201DU+800CU+6210U+FF0CU+6216U+8005U+7531U+201CU+4E3AVU+201DU+6DFBU+52A0AU+800CU+6210U+FF0CU+800CU+201CU+4E3AAU+FF08U+4E4BU+FF09U+6240VU+201DU+5219U+662FU+201CAU+FF08U+4E4BU+FF09U+6240VU+201DU+66FFU+4EE3U+201CU+4E3AAVU+201DU+4E2DU+7684U+201CAVU+201DU+800CU+6210U+3002U+56E0U+6B64U+FF0CU+5148U+79E6U+6642U+671FU+7684U+201CU+4E3AU+201DU+5B57U+5F0FU+FF0CU+4ECEU+53E5U+6CD5U+4E0AU+6765U+8BF4U+90FDU+4E0DU+662FU+88ABU+52A8U+5F0FU+3002U+4F46U+662FU+FF0CU+201CU+4E3AAU+6240VU+201DU+5728U+6C49U+4EE3U+6210U+4E3AU+4E86U+4E00U+4E2AU+771FU+6B63U+7684U+88ABU+52A8U+5F0FU+FF0CU+800CU+8FD9U+4E2AU+95EEU+9898U+5C06U+5728U+53E6U+4E00U+7BC7U+6587U+7AE0U+4E2DU+7EC6U+8FF0U+3002U+5173U+952EU+8BCDU+7CFBU+8BCDU+7ED3U+6784 U+88ABU+52A8U+7ED3U+6784 U+201CU+4EE5XU+4E3AYU+201DU+5904U+7F6EU+7ED3U+6784 U+201CU+4E3AVU+201DU+7ED3U+6784 U+201CU+4E3AAVU+201DU+7ED3U+6784 U+201CU+4E3AAU+FF08U+4E4BU+FF09U+6240VU+201DU+7ED3U+6784
Tijdschrift: Journal of Chinese Linguistics
ISSN: 0091-3723
Issue: 1
Volume: 47
Pagina's:  82 - 124
Jaar van publicatie:2019