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Flexibility of equine bioenergetics and muscle plasticity in response to different types of training : an integrative approach, questioning existing paradigms

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel

Equine bioenergetics have predominantly been studied focusing on glycogen and fatty acids. Combining omics with conventional techniques allows for an integrative approach to broadly explore and identify important biomolecules. Friesian horses were aquatrained (n = 5) or dry treadmill trained (n = 7) (8 weeks) and monitored for: evolution of muscle diameter in response to aquatraining and dry treadmill training, fiber type composition and fiber cross-sectional area of the M. pectoralis, M. vastus lateralis and M. semitendinosus and untargeted metabolomics of the M. pectoralis and M. vastus lateralis in response to dry treadmill training. Aquatraining was superior to dry treadmill training to increase muscle diameter in the hindquarters, with maximum effect after 4 weeks. After dry treadmill training, the M. pectoralis showed increased muscle diameter, more type I fibers, decreased fiber mean cross sectional area, and an upregulated oxidative metabolic profile: increased U+03B2-oxidation (key metabolites: decreased long chain fatty acids and increased long chain acylcarnitines), TCA activity (intermediates including succinyl-carnitine and 2-methylcitrate), amino acid metabolism (glutamine, aromatic amino acids, serine, urea cycle metabolites such as proline, arginine and ornithine) and xenobiotic metabolism (especially p-cresol glucuronide). The M. vastus lateralis expanded its fast twitch profile, with decreased muscle diameter, type I fibers and an upregulation of glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathway activity, and increased branched-chain and aromatic amino acid metabolism (cis-urocanate, carnosine, homocarnosine, tyrosine, tryptophan, p-cresol-glucuronide, serine, methionine, cysteine, proline and ornithine). Trained Friesians showed increased collagen and elastin turn-over. Results show that branched-chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids and microbiome-derived xenobiotics need further study in horses. They feed the TCA cycle at steps further downstream from acetyl CoA and most likely, they are oxidized in type IIA fibers, the predominant fiber type of the horse. These study results underline the importance of reviewing existing paradigms on equine bioenergetics.
Tijdschrift: PLoS ONE
Issue: 4
Volume: 16
Aantal pagina's: 1
Jaar van publicatie:2021