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Factors Associated With the Ultrasound Characteristics of the Lumbar Multifidus: A Systematic Review

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel

OBJECTIVE: The first aim of this review was to investigate the association between age, sex, height, weight, physical activity level, posture, lumbar level and body side, and structural characteristics (cross-sectional area [CSA], thickness, linear dimensions, and echo intensity) of the lumbar multifidus (LM) measured by ultrasound. Second, differences between healthy individuals and patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) were investigated. TYPE: Systematic review. LITERATURE SURVEY: PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were searched until September 2018. METHODOLOGY: Studies were included if (a) full text was available in English, Dutch, or French; (b) participants were older than 18 years of age and were asymptomatic or had nonspecific CLBP; and (c) the relation between structural characteristics of the LM, measured by ultrasound, and at least one of the above-mentioned factors was described, and/or a comparison between a CLBP and control group was made. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Quality of studies was assessed using an adapted version of the Downs and Black checklist. SYNTHESIS: Twenty-seven studies were included. Thickness and CSA of the LM do not correlate with age. Males have a larger LM size than females. Thickness and CSA of left and right LM are highly correlated in healthy subjects. More significant side-to-side differences are present in subjects with CLBP than in those without. Muscle size increases from proximal to caudal lumbar levels. The presence of CLBP is associated with muscle size and function. CONCLUSIONS: The association between the factors age, sex, height, weight, physical activity level, posture, lumbar level, body side, and presence of CLBP, and the ultrasound characteristics of the LM is discussed. These factors should be taken into account in future research on structural muscle characteristics, or when correlating with functional behavior or investigating the effect of a targeted intervention. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: I.
Tijdschrift: PM & R
ISSN: 1934-1482
Issue: 1
Volume: 12
Pagina's: 82 - 100
Aantal pagina's: 19
Jaar van publicatie:2019