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Exposure of children to brominated flame retardants and heavy metals in Morocco: Urine and blood levels in association with global cytosine and adenine methylation

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel

Persistent pollutants, namely brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and heavy metals, are compounds that are added to a wide range of products and materials for preventing ignition, increasing the functionality of materials or improving their performance, e.g. electric conductivity. The exposure of children might consequently be inferred, through indoor dust and hand-to-mouth or toy-chewing behaviors. The current study is aimed at assessing the exposure of Moroccan children to BFRs and heavy metal elements, and evaluating their associations with global DNA methylation. First, parents responded to a questionnaire pertaining to children's lifestyle, then blood and urine samples were collected from (n = 93) children aged between 5 and 11 years for biomonitoring and DNA methylation analysis. BFRs were detected in 54.84% of samples with a median concentration of 0.01 nmol/mL (range: 0.004-0.051 nmol/mL) while metal elements were detected in more than 90% of samples. BFRs showed no variations with global DNA methylation, unlike metal elements, which revealed significant associations with global DNA methylation markers, namely 5-mC, 5-hmC and N⁶-mA levels. Moroccan children may be exposed to flame retardants and heavy metals through several routes. Further research is required to assess the exposure and the health impacts of environmental pollutants and ultimately protect the Moroccan population by the prevention of adverse health effects.
Tijdschrift: Environment International
ISSN: 0160-4120
Volume: 183
Jaar van publicatie:2024