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Exploring aldehyde release in beer by 4-vinylpyridine and the effect of cysteine addition on the beer's pool of bound aldehydes

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As a continuation of our previous work, which concerned the binding of aldehydes to bisulfite and cysteine, this article presents more results on the applicability of 4-vinylpyridine addition to beer prior to analysis aiming at release of aldehydes from these preformed bound states, thus making them quantifiable with the headspace solid-phase microextraction method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This article also presents the first results on spiking beer samples with cysteine prior to forced-aging, pointing to the important role of cysteine in beer flavor stability. Both the levels in free and bound aldehydes show a relatively large degree of variation among different beers, but also between marker aldehydes. For some aldehydes (e.g., hexanal), the bound amount was shown to increase rather strongly upon forced beer aging, whereas for others (e.g., 2-methylpropanal), large amounts appeared to already be present in a bound state in the fresh samples. Spiking beer samples with cysteine prior to aging significantly lowered the aldehyde levels compared with nonspiked samples. Flavor stability of the cysteine-spiked beers was thereby greatly improved through aldehyde-cysteine adduct formation. It was further hypothesized that, in addition to efficient binding of aldehydes, cysteine also inhibits the formation of furfural during beer aging from Maillard reaction intermediates.
Tijdschrift: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF BREWING CHEMISTS
ISSN: 1943-7854
Issue: 4
Volume: 76
Pagina's: 257 - 271
Jaar van publicatie:2018