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Early oseltamivir reduces risk for influenza-associated aspergillosis in a double-hit murine model

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening fungal infection occurring mainly in immunocompromised patients. We recently identified IPA as an emerging co-infection with high mortality in critically ill, but otherwise immunocompetent influenza patients. The neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir is the current standard-of-care treatment in hospitalized influenza patients; however, its efficacy in influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA) is not known. Therefore, we have established an imaging-supported double-hit mouse model to investigate the therapeutic effect of oseltamivir on the development of IAPA. Immunocompetent mice received intranasal instillation influenza A or PBS followed by orotracheal inoculation with Aspergillus fumigatus 4 days later. Oseltamivir treatment or placebo was started at day 0, day 2, or day 4. Daily monitoring included micro-computed tomography and bioluminescence imaging of pneumonia and fungal burden. Non-invasive biomarkers were complemented with imaging, molecular, immunological, and pathological analysis. Influenza virus-infected immunocompetent mice developed proven airway IPA upon co-infection with Aspergillus fumigatus, whereas non-influenza-infected mice fully cleared Aspergillus, confirming influenza as a risk factor for developing IPA. Longitudinal micro-CT showed pulmonary lesions after influenza infection worsening after Aspergillus co-infection, congruent with bioluminescence imaging and histology confirming Aspergillus pneumonia. Early oseltamivir treatment prevented severe influenza pneumonia and mitigated the development of IPA and associated mortality. A time-dependent treatment effect was consistently observed with imaging, molecular, and pathological analyses. Hence, our findings underscore the importance of initiating oseltamivir as soon as possible, to suppress influenza infection and mitigate the risk of potentially lethal IAPA disease.
Tijdschrift: Virulence
ISSN: 2150-5594
Issue: 1
Volume: Volume 12
Pagina's: 2493 - 2508
Jaar van publicatie:2021
Trefwoorden:Immunologie, Parageneeskundige wetenschappen , Microbiologie