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Clinical Features for the Diagnosis of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel

PURPOSE: Accurate diagnosis of urinary tract infection in children is essential because children left untreated can experience permanent renal injury. We aimed to assess the diagnostic value of clinical features of pediatric urinary tract infection. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies in ambulatory care. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment, and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects databases from inception to January 27, 2020 for studies reporting 2 × 2 diagnostic accuracy data for clinical features compared with urine culture in children aged <18 years. For each clinical feature, we calculated likelihood ratios and posttest probabilities of urinary tract infection. To estimate summary parameters, we conducted a bivariate random effects meta-analysis and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 35 studies (N = 78,427 patients) of moderate to high quality were included, providing information on 58 clinical features and 6 prediction rules. Only circumcision (negative likelihood ratio [LR-] 0.24; 95% CI, 0.08-0.72; n = 8), stridor (LR- 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05-0.81; n = 1), and diaper rash (LR- 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02-0.92; n = 1) were useful for ruling out urinary tract infection. Body temperature or fever duration showed limited diagnostic value (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.61; 95% CI, 0.47-0.73; n = 16). The Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection in Young Children score, Gorelick Scale score, and UTIcalc (https://uticalc.pitt.edu) might be useful to identify children eligible for urine sampling. CONCLUSIONS: Few clinical signs and symptoms are useful for diagnosing or ruling out urinary tract infection in children. Clinical prediction rules might be more accurate; however, they should be validated externally. Physicians should not restrict urine sampling to children with unexplained fever or other features suggestive of urinary tract infection.
Tijdschrift: Annals of Family Medicine
ISSN: 1544-1709
Issue: 5
Volume: 19
Pagina's: 437 - 446
Aantal pagina's: 10
Jaar van publicatie:2021
Trefwoorden:Algemene en interne geneeskunde , Parageneeskundige wetenschappen