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Chronic Histiocytic Intervillositis With Trophoblast Necrosis Is a Risk Factor Associated With Placental Infection From Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Intrauterine Maternal-Fetal Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Transmission in Live-Born and Stillborn Infants.

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CONTEXT.—: The number of neonates with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is increasing, and in a few there are reports of intrauterine infection. OBJECTIVE.—: To characterize the placental pathology findings in a preselected cohort of neonates infected by transplacental transmission arising from maternal infection with SARS-CoV-2, and to identify pathology risk factors for placental and fetal infection. DESIGN.—: Case-based retrospective analysis by a multinational group of 19 perinatal specialists of the placental pathology findings from 2 cohorts of infants delivered to mothers testing positive for SARS-CoV-2: live-born neonates infected via transplacental transmission who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 after delivery and had SARS-CoV-2 identified in cells of the placental fetal compartment by molecular pathology, and stillborn infants with syncytiotrophoblast positive for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS.—: In placentas from all 6 live-born neonates acquiring SARS-CoV-2 via transplacental transmission, the syncytiotrophoblast was positive for coronavirus using immunohistochemistry, RNA in situ hybridization, or both. All 6 placentas had chronic histiocytic intervillositis and necrosis of the syncytiotrophoblast. The 5 stillborn/terminated infants had placental pathology findings that were similar, including SARS-CoV-2 infection of the syncytiotrophoblast, chronic histiocytic intervillositis, and syncytiotrophoblast necrosis. CONCLUSIONS.—: Chronic histiocytic intervillositis together with syncytiotrophoblast necrosis accompanies SARS-CoV-2 infection of syncytiotrophoblast in live-born and stillborn infants. The coexistence of these 2 findings in all placentas from live-born infants acquiring their infection prior to delivery indicates that they constitute a pathology risk factor for transplacental fetal infection. Potential mechanisms of infection of the placenta and fetus with SARS-CoV-2, and potential future studies, are discussed.
Tijdschrift: Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
ISSN: 0003-9985
Issue: 5
Volume: 145
Pagina's: 517 - 528
Jaar van publicatie:2021
Trefwoorden:Anatomie en Pathologie , Experimentele geneeskunde