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Changes in coronal knee-alignment parameters during the osteoarthritis process in the varus knee
Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel
Objectives: The idea to aim for an "individualized" alignment, whereby the constitutional alignment is restored, has gained much interest among knee surgeons. This requires insight into the prediseased, natural alignment of our patients' knees. The aim of this study is (1) to determine how the hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle is influenced during the arthritic process and (2) to investigate the correlation between joint line changes and the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). It is our hypothesis that the most pronounced coronal parameter changes appear at the proximal tibia and at the joint line. Methods: One hundred sequential full-length X-rays with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were retrospectively reviewed from a radiographic joint database. Patients had to be at least 50 years of age needed to have an HKA angle of more than 1.3 degrees varus to be included. Patients with ipsilateral total hip arthroplasty, femoral or tibial fracture, osteotomy, or ligamentous repair were excluded. Fifteen alignment parameters were investigated on the sequential full-length X-rays. Moreover, the relationship between the alignment parameters and the Kellgren-Lawrence grade (KL grade) was determined by using linear mixed models. Results: A progressive KL grade is associated with an increase of the HKA (p < 0.001). Mostly, HKA differs due to decrease of the medial tibial plateau (MPTA) angle (0.93 degrees) and an increase of the joint line angle (JLCA) (0.86 degrees). The mLDFA demonstrated the most pronounced changes in the beginning of OA (KL grade 1-2) (p = 0.049). In particular, the MPTA becomes considerably smaller (p = 0.004) in the later stage of OA (KL grade 3). Also, a progressive increase of the JLCA (p < 0.001) is observed upwards of KL grade 3. Conclusion: By comparing consecutive full-length X-rays in the same patients, it is possible to define the coronal alignment changes during the arthritic process. The HKA angle increases according the arthritic progression, whereby the most pronounced changes appear at the proximal tibia (MPTA) and at the joint line (JLCA).The alignment changes in varus OA knees can be divided in three stadia: (1) erosion of the distal medial femoral condyle, (2) erosion of the medial tibial plateau, and (3) a progressive increase of the joint line angle. Level of evidence: Therapeutic Study, Level III.
Tijdschrift: JOURNAL OF ISAKOS JOINT DISORDERS & ORTHOPAEDIC SPORTS MEDICINE
Pagina's: 68 - 73
Trefwoorden:Constitutional varus, Knee alignment, Prediseased, Osteoarthritis, Coronal