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Bioassay-guided isolation of active substances from Semen Torreyae identifies two new anthelmintic compounds with novel mechanism of action

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ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Semen Torreyae, the seeds of Torreya grandis Fortune ex Lindley (Cephalotaxaceae) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopeia (2010 version). It is widely used for treating intestinal parasites in China, owing to its desirable efficacy and safety. However, the anthelmintic compounds in Semen Torreyae have not yet been identified. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to identify the compounds active against helminths from Semen Torreyae. In addition, we tested whether C. elegans strains resistant to currently-used anthelmintic drugs showed cross-resistance to these compounds. METHODS: A bioassay-guided isolation of anthelmintic compounds from Semen Torreyae was performed using a Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) testing model. The structures of active compounds were elucidated by a combination of GC-MS, high resolution MS, and NMR. The median-effect method was employed to generate a combination index (CI) to evaluate the synergistic effect of the anthelmintic compounds. A panel of C. elegans mutant strains resistant against the major anthelmintic drug classes was used to study the cross-resistance to currently-used anthelmintic drugs. A panel of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel mutant strains was also tested to explore the possible mechanisms of action of the anthelmintic compounds. RESULTS: The bioassay-guided isolation led to two active compounds, i.e. galangal acetate (IC50: 58.5 ± 8.9 μM) and miogadial (IC50: 25.1 ± 5.4 μM). The combination of galangal acetate and miogadial resulted in a synergistic effect at IC50, IC70, and IC90 levels (CIs < 1). Galangal acetate and miogadial demonstrated similar activity against drug-resistant C. elegans strains compared to the wild-type strain. In addition, none of the TRP mutants was significantly resistant to galangal acetate or miogadial compared to wild type worms. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the bioactive compounds from Semen Torreyae responsible for its anthelmintic activity: galangal acetate and miogadial. The two anthelmintic compounds demonstrated a synergistic effect against C. elegans. Galangal acetate and miogadial are unlikely to act on the targets of currently-used anthelmintics (ivermectin, levamisole, benomyl and aldicarb), and an action on TRP channels appears to be ruled out as well. In summary, galangal acetate and miogadial are promising anthelmintic hits worth further investigation.
Tijdschrift: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
ISSN: 0378-8741
Volume: 224
Pagina's: 421 - 428
Aantal pagina's: 8
Jaar van publicatie:2018
Trefwoorden:Organische en medische scheikunde, Algemene en interne geneeskunde , Farmacologie en toxicologie, Plantkunde