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The association of chronic complications with time in tight range and time in range in people with type 1 diabetes: a retrospective cross-sectional real-world study

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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of chronic complications with time in tight range (TITR: 3.9-7.8 mmol/l) and time in range (TIR: 3.9-10.0 mmol/l) in people with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: The prevalence of microvascular complications (diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy and diabetic peripheral neuropathy [DPN]) and macrovascular complications according to sensor-measured TITR/TIR was analysed cross-sectionally in 808 adults with type 1 diabetes. Binary logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between TITR/TIR and the presence of complications without adjustment, with adjustment for HbA1c, and with adjustment for HbA1c and other confounding factors (sex, age, diabetes duration, BMI, BP, lipid profile, smoking, and use of statins and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors). RESULTS: The mean TITR and TIR were 33.9 ± 12.8% and 52.5 ± 15.0%, respectively. Overall, 46.0% had any microvascular complication (34.5% diabetic retinopathy, 23.8% diabetic nephropathy, 16.0% DPN) and 16.3% suffered from any macrovascular complication. The prevalence of any microvascular complication, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy and a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) decreased with increasing TITR/TIR quartiles (all ptrend<0.05). Each 10% increase in TITR was associated with a lower incidence of any microvascular complication (OR 0.762; 95% CI 0.679, 0.855; p<0.001), diabetic retinopathy (OR 0.757; 95% CI 0.670, 0.856; p<0.001), background diabetic retinopathy (OR 0.760; 95% CI 0.655, 0.882; p<0.001), severe diabetic retinopathy (OR 0.854; 95% CI 0.731, 0.998; p=0.048), diabetic nephropathy (OR 0.799; 95% CI 0.699, 0.915; p<0.001), DPN (OR 0.837; 95% CI 0.717, 0.977; p=0.026) and CVA (OR 0.651; 95% CI 0.470, 0.902; p=0.010). The independent association of TITR with any microvascular complication (OR 0.867; 95% CI 0.762, 0.988; p=0.032), diabetic retinopathy (OR 0.837; 95% CI 0.731, 0.959; p=0.010), background diabetic retinopathy (OR 0.831; 95% CI 0.705, 0.979; p=0.027) and CVA (OR 0.619; 95% CI 0.426, 0.899; p=0.012) persisted after adjustment for HbA1c. Similar results were obtained when controlling for HbA1c and other confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: TITR and TIR are inversely associated with the presence of microvascular complications and CVA in people with type 1 diabetes. Although this study was not designed to establish a causal relationship, this analysis adds validity to the use of TITR and TIR as key measures in glycaemic management. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02601729 and NCT02898714.
Tijdschrift: Diabetologia
ISSN: 0012-186X
Jaar van publicatie:2024
Toegankelijkheid:Closed