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Association Between Parental Anxiety and Depression Level and Psychopathological Symptoms in Offspring With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is recognized as one of the strongest genetic risk factors for the development of psychopathology, including dramatically increased prevalence of schizophrenia anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Despite sharing a homogenous genetic deletion, the psychiatric phenotype in 22q11DS still present significant variability across subjects. The origins of such variability remain largely unclear. Levels of parental psychopathology could significantly contribute to phenotypic variability of offspring psychopathology, through mechanisms of gene x gene (GxG) and gene x environment (GxE) interactions. However, this hypothesis has not been explicitly tested to date in 22q11DS. In the present manuscript, we employed a longitudinal design to investigate bi-directional interactions of parental anxiety and depressive symptoms, estimated with Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory, and offspring level of psychopathology assessed with a combination of parentally reported Child Behavioral Checklist, Youth Self Report Questionnaire, and Structured Clinical Interviews for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). We tested associations in both typically developing healthy controls (HCs) (N = 88 participants; N = 131 time points) and in individuals with 22q11DS (N = 103 participants; N = 198 time points). We observed that 22q11DS individuals with higher levels of parental anxiety and depression presented significant increases in multiple forms of psychopathology, including higher internalizing and externalizing symptoms, as estimated both by parental and self-report questionnaires, along with higher negative and generalized symptoms as measured with the SIPS. Associations for positive and disorganized dimensions of the SIPS were not statistically significant. Purely longitudinal analysis pointed to bi-directional interactions of parental and child psychopathology, with marginally stronger longitudinal associations between early parental anxiety-depression and subsequent child psychopathology. Interestingly, associations between psychopathology across generations were significantly stronger in 22q11DS individuals compared to HCs. Our results show that parental levels of anxiety and depression are associated with levels of offspring psychopathology, particularly in individuals with 22q11DS. These findings point to the existence of GxG or GxE mechanisms, that should be investigated in future work. From a clinical perspective, they highlight a strong rational for the management of parental psychological well-being in 22q11DS.
Tijdschrift: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Volume: 11
Aantal pagina's: 11
Jaar van publicatie:2020