## Enjoying mathematics or feeling competent in mathematics? Reciprocal effects on mathematics achievement and perceived math effort expenditure KU Leuven

Background. The multidimensionality of the academic self-concept in terms of domain specificity has been well-established in previous studies whereas its multidimensionality in terms of motivational functions (the so-called affect-competence separation) needs further examination. Aim. The present study aims at exploring differential effects of enjoyment and competence beliefs on two external validity criteria in the field of mathematics. Sample. ...