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Water-Stable Plasma-Polymerized N,N-Dimethylacrylamide Coatings to Control Cellular Adhesion
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
The plasma polymerization of amide-based precursors is a nearly unexplored research area, which is in contrast with the abundance of reports focusing on amide-based surface modification using wet chemistry. Therefore, this study aims to profoundly investigate the near-atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAM) to obtain stable coatings. In contrast to the unstable coatings obtained at lower discharge powers, the stable coatings that were obtained at higher powers showed a lower hydrophilicity as assessed by water contact angle (WCA). This decrease in hydrophilicity with increasing plasma power was found to be related to a reduced preservation of the monomer structure, as observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and XPS C60 depth profiling, a rarely used but effective combination of techniques. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the coating was found to be in good agreement with the plasma active species observed by optical emission spectroscopy. Additionally, XPS C60 depth profiling indicated a difference between the top layer and bulk of the plasma polymer due to spontaneous oxidation and/or postplasma coating deposition. Finally, the stable coatings were also found to have cell-interactive behavior toward MC3T3 as studied by in vitro live/dead fluorescence imaging and (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) (MTS) assays. With the latter technique, a cell viability of up to 89% as compared with tissue culture plates after 1 day of cell culture was observed, indicating the potential of these coatings for tissue engineering purposes.
Journal: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Pages: 2116 - 2128