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Velocities of naturally occurring myocardial shear waves increase with age and in cardiac amyloidosis
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate whether velocity of naturally occurring myocardial shear waves (SW) could relate to myocardial stiffness (MS) in vivo. BACKGROUND: Cardiac SW imaging has been proposed as a noninvasive tool to assess MS. SWs occur after mechanical excitation of the myocardium (e.g., mitral valve closure [MVC] and aortic valve closure [AVC]), and their propagation velocity is theoretically related to MS, thus providing an opportunity to assess stiffness at end-diastole (ED) and end-systole. However, given that SW propagation in vivo is complex, it remains unclear whether natural SW velocity effectively relates to MS. METHODS: This study prospectively enrolled 50 healthy volunteers (HV) (43.7 ± 17.1 years of age) and 18 patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA) (68.0 ± 9.8 years of age). HV were divided into 3 age groups: group I, 20 to 39 years of age (n = 24); group II, 40 to 59 years of age (n = 11); and group III, 60 to 80 years of age (n = 15). Parasternal long-axis views were acquired using an experimental scanner. Tissue (Doppler) acceleration maps were extracted from an anatomical M-mode along the midline of the left ventricular septum. RESULTS: SW propagation velocity was significantly higher in CA patients than in HV after both MVC (3.54 ± 0.93 m/s vs. 6.33 ± 1.63 m/s, respectively; p < 0.001) and AVC (3.75 ± 0.76 m/s vs. 5.63 ± 1.13 m/s, respectively; p < 0.001). Similarly, SW propagation velocity differed significantly among age groups in HV, with a significantly higher value for group III than for group I, both occurring after MVC (p < 0.001) and AVC (p < 0.01). Moreover, SW propagation velocity after MVC was found to be significantly higher in patients with an increasing grade of diastolic dysfunction (p < 0.001). Finally, positive correlation was found between SW velocities after MVC and mitral inflow-to-mitral relaxation velocity ratio (E/E') (r = 0.74; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: End-diastole SW velocities were significantly higher in patients with CA, patients with a higher grade of diastolic dysfunction, and elderly volunteers. These findings thus suggest that the speed of naturally induced SWs may be related to MS.
Journal: JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
Pages: 2389 - 2398
Number of pages: 10
Authors from:Higher Education