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Torsin and NEP1R1-CTDNEP1 phosphatase affect interphase nuclear pore complex insertion by lipid-dependent and lipid-independent mechanisms
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
The interphase nuclear envelope (NE) is extensively remodeled during nuclear pore complex (NPC) insertion. How this remodeling occurs and why it requires Torsin ATPases, which also regulate lipid metabolism, remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Drosophila Torsin (dTorsin) affects lipid metabolism via the NEP1R1-CTDNEP1 phosphatase and the Lipin phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatase. This includes that Torsins remove NEP1R1-CTDNEP1 from the NE in fly and mouse cells, leading to subsequent Lipin exclusion from the nucleus. NEP1R1-CTDNEP1 downregulation also restores nuclear pore membrane fusion in post-mitotic dTorsinKO fat body cells. However, dTorsin-associated nuclear pore defects do not correlate with lipidomic abnormalities and are not resolved by silencing of Lipin. Further testing confirmed that membrane fusion continues in cells with hyperactivated Lipin. It also led to the surprising finding that excessive PA metabolism inhibits recruitment of the inner ring complex Nup35 subunit, resulting in elongated channel-like structures in place of mature nuclear pores. We conclude that the NEP1R1-CTDNEP1 phosphatase affects interphase NPC biogenesis by lipid-dependent and lipid-independent mechanisms, explaining some of the pleiotropic effects of Torsins.
Journal: EMBO Journal