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Publication

Tomographic PIV in a model of the left ventricle: 3D flow past biological and mechanical heart valves

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

Left ventricular flow is intrinsically complex, three-dimensional and unsteady. Its features are susceptible to cardiovascular pathology and treatment, in particular to surgical interventions involving the valves (mitral valve replacement). To improve our understanding of intraventricular fluid mechanics and the impact of various types of prosthetic valves thereon, we have developed a custom-designed versatile left ventricular phantom with anatomically realistic moving left ventricular membrane. A biological, a tilting disc and a bileaflet valve (in two different orientations) were mounted in the mitral position and tested under the same settings. To investigate 3D flow within the phantom, a four-view tomographic particle image velocimetry setup has been implemented. The results compare side-by-side the evolution of the 3D flow topology, vortical structures and kinetic energy in the left ventricle domain during the cardiac cycle. Except for the tilting disc valve, all tested prosthetic valves induced a crossed flow path, where the outflow crosses the inflow path, passing under the mitral valve. The biological valve shows a strong jet with a peak velocity about twice as high compared to all mechanical heart valves, which makes it easier to penetrate deeply into the cavity. Accordingly, the peak kinetic energy in the left ventricle in case of the biological valve is about four times higher than the mechanical heart valves. We conclude that the tomographic particle imaging velocimetry setup provides a useful ground truth measurement of flow features and allows a comparison of the effects of different valve types on left ventricular flow patterns.
Journal: Journal Of Biomechanics
ISSN: 0021-9290
Volume: 90
Pages: 40 - 49
Publication year:2019