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Texture and interlinked post-process microstructures determine the in vitro starch digestibility of Bambara groundnuts with distinct hard-to-cook levels
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd Particular storage conditions are described to promote the development of the hard-to-cook (HTC) phenomenon for most legumes. However, it is not clearly established whether the HTC phenomenon influences starch digestion kinetics. Therefore, this study explored how the HTC phenomenon influences in vitro starch digestion of Bambara groundnuts, taking into account three distinct HTC levels. Stored Bambara groundnuts required prolonged cooking times. Increasing storage time led to a decrease in the rate constant of texture degradation, signifying the development of the HTC phenomenon. For cooking times of 60 min and 120 min, high HTC level samples exhibited higher rate constants and extents of starch digestion compared to the fresh sample. The higher rate of digestion was attributed to the high hardness that resulted in greater cell rupture and faster access of amylase to starch. Adapting cooking times of Bambara groundnuts with distinct HTC levels to obtain equivalent hardness values and microstructures resulted in comparable starch digestion kinetics. Spectrophotometric analysis overestimated the amount of digested starch, in contrast to the more accurate HPLC analysis, which further provided more insight by quantifying multiple digestion products. This work demonstrates that it is the hardness and interlinked pattern of cell failure (microstructure) that determines starch digestion of Bambara groundnuts with distinct HTC levels.
Journal: Food Research International
Pages: 1 - 11