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Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Lipophilic Nucleoside Analogues as Inhibitors of Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
Emerging antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria and reduction of compounds in the existing antibiotics discovery pipeline is the most critical concern for healthcare professionals. A potential solution aims to explore new or existing targets/compounds. Inhibition of bacterial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRSs) could be one such target for the development of antibiotics. The aaRSs are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an amino acid to their cognate tRNA and therefore play a pivotal role in translation. Thus, selective inhibition of these enzymes could be detrimental to microbes. The 5'-O-(N-(L-aminoacyl)) sulfamoyladenosines (aaSAs) are potent inhibitors of the respective aaRSs, however due to their polarity and charged nature they cannot cross the bacterial membranes. In this work, we increased the lipophilicity of these existing aaSAs in an effort to promote their penetration through the bacterial membrane. Two strategies were followed, either attaching a (permanent) alkyl moiety at the adenine ring via alkylation of the N6-position or introducing a lipophilic biodegradable prodrug moiety at the alpha-terminal amine, totaling eight new aaSA analogues. All synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro using either a purified Escherichiacoli aaRS enzyme or in presence of total cellular extract obtained from E. coli. The prodrugs showed comparable inhibitory activity to the parent aaSA analogues, indicating metabolic activation in cellular extracts, but had little effect on bacteria. During evaluation of the N6-alkylated compounds against different microbes, the N6-octyl containing congener 6b showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5 µM against Sarcina lutea while the dodecyl analogue 6c displayed MIC of 6.25 µM against Candidaalbicans.
Number of pages: 23