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Sustainability of maritime supply chain
Book - Dissertation
Subtitle:economic analysis to comply with environmental regulations and social issues
Maritime transport is considered the most significant transport mode in world trade and maritime trade have risen in recent years, which leads to economic growth. However, at the same time, it causes severe environmental effects that jeopardize the ecosystem and human health. The adverse impacts of the maritime supply chain (MarSC) are not limited to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution, but they include other significant issues such as the spread of invasive species via ballast water, oil spill, chemical and waste management, cargo handling, safety and security at the ports, and noise pollution. The sustainability of this sector is a challenging issue for the stakeholders involved in this industry. Several aspects are indispensable to enhancing the sustainability of MarSC, grouped as economic, social, and environmental elements. In this thesis, some of the main significant issues in containerized maritime shipping are addressed economically, in which the main objective is to improve the sustainability of MarSC under environmental and social regulations. This Ph.D. covers different segments and stages of the MarSC, including hinterland transport, seawaters, maritime shipping, and port and terminal operations to improve the sustainability of the MarSC at regional, national, and global levels. The main objective of this Ph.D. is to provide the economic assessment of the most selected and promising technologies and methodologies to overcome the negative impacts of the marine shipping and port industry and bridge some of the available shortcomings. Besides, it will enhance the sustainability of maritime shipping in terms of economic, environmental, and social perspectives concerning the current international conventions and legislations. The overarching research question is: What is the economic impact of sustainability issues on maritime shipping in various trade routes from different stakeholders’ standpoints? This Ph.D. thesis is based on an application approach, and each one is researched in an independent chapter in which several methodologies are applied to fulfill the objectives and to respond to the key research question. Four main application studies are as follows: economic impact of the instalment of Same Risk Area (SRA) under the Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC), economic evaluation of alternative technologies to mitigate sulfur emissions, enhancing the supervision of containerized cargo from an economic perspective and supply chain analysis in terms of dry and reefer cargo. The Chain Cost Model (CCM) is the primary model, and it calculates the generalized cost per TEU in a loop. Then, a novel typology of vessel types is developed based on yearly BW consumption and previous port of call of vessels. The applied methodology is the cost and benefit calculation of the ships based on the obtained typology leading to the total net benefit of installing the SRA. Next, a unique scanning cost approach is established to assess the scanning costs based on various scanning rates and locations. This Ph.D. supports the governments and policy-decision makers by providing the costs and benefits of selected cases of addressing the sustainability of MarSC. Moreover, the outcomes are beneficial for a large groups of maritime stakeholders including port authorities, terminal operators, customs brokers, shipping companies, shippers and academia.
Number of pages: 225