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Study and Interpretation of Chemical Composition of Rainwater in Selected Urban and Rural Locations in India Using Multivariate Analysis
Journal Contribution - Journal Article Conference Contribution
© 2018 Author(s). Rainwater is an important untapped resource for all water managers and can be collected and used personally for all uses and simultaneously diverted to ground for recharge of depleting aquifers. Rain water is the most purest form of water until it is contaminated by the atmospheric pollution. Evaluation of rainwater quality analysis is also essential for non-potable applications and to match quality to specific uses. Rainwater quality analysis is, therefore, carried out to understand the problems of rainwater contamination with various pollutants. Rainwater samples were collected from the pre-monsoon season of March 2010 to post-monsoon of October 2013, from seven sampling sites namely Irongmara, Badarpur, Bongaigaon, Dolaigaon, BGR Township, Kolkata and Kharagpur, which characterised typical suburban, urban and industrialised locations respectively. A total of 943 samples were collected during this period from the sampling sites, taking utmost care in sampling and storage were analysed for heavy metals determination. Results for pH, EC, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cr and Co were reported in this study. The samples were collected using PVC bottles. The highest concentration of elements was observed at the beginning of the rainfall season when large amounts of dust accumulated in the atmosphere scavenged by rain. The values of pH in rainwater samples were relatively within the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for drinking water. Multivariate statistical analysis especially varimax rotation was applied to bring to focus the hidden yet important variables which influence the rainwater quality. It is also observed that rainwater contamination may not be restricted to industrial areas alone but vehicular emission may also contribute significantly in certain areas.
Journal: 9th International Conference and Workshop on Numerical Simulation of 3D Sheet Metal Forming Processes: part A benchmark problems and results and part B general papers
Number of pages: 7