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Sharing Machine Learning Models as Indicators of Compromise for Cyber Threat Intelligence
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
Cyber threat intelligence (CTI) sharing is the collaborative effort of sharing information about cyber attacks to help organizations gain a better understanding of threats and proactively defend their systems and networks from cyber attacks. The challenge that we address is the fact that traditional indicators of compromise (IoC) may not always capture the breath or essence of a cyber security threat or attack campaign, possibly leading to false alert fatigue and missed detections with security analysts. To tackle this concern, we designed and evaluated a CTI solution that complements the attribute and tagging based sharing of indicators of compromise with machine learning (ML) models for collaborative threat detection. We implemented our solution on top of MISP, TheHive, and Cortex—three state-of-practice open source CTI sharing and incident response platforms—to incrementally improve the accuracy of these ML models, i.e., reduce the false positives and false negatives with shared counter-evidence, as well as ascertain the robustness of these models against ML attacks. However, the ML models can be attacked as well by adversaries that aim to evade detection. To protect the models and to maintain confidentiality and trust in the shared threat intelligence, we extend our previous research to offer fine-grained access to CP-ABE encrypted machine learning models and related artifacts to authorized parties. Our evaluation demonstrates the practical feasibility of the ML model based threat intelligence sharing, including the ability of accounting for indicators of adversarial ML threats.
Journal: Journal of Cybersecurity and Privacy
Pages: 140 - 163