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Recent progress in the LC-MS/MS analysis of oxidative stress biomarkers

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

The presence of a dynamic and balanced equilibrium between the production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species and the in-house antioxidant defense mechanisms is characteristic for a healthy body. During oxidative stress (OS), this balance is switched to increased production of ROS and RNS, exceeding the capacity of physiological antioxidant systems. This can cause damage to biological molecules, leading to loss of function and even cell death. Nowadays, there is increasing scientific and clinical interest in OS and the associated parameters to measure the degree of OS in biofluids. An increasing number of reports using LC-MS/MS methods for the analysis of OS biomarkers can be found. Since bioanalysis is usually complicated by matrix effects, various types of cleanup procedures are used to effectively separate the biomarkers from the matrix. This is an essential part of the analysis to prepare a reproducible and homogenous solution suitable for injection onto the column. The present review gives a summary of the chromatographic methods used for the determination of OS biomarkers in both urine and plasma, serum, and whole blood samples. The first part mainly describes the biological background of the different OS biomarkers, while the second part reports examples of chromatographic methods for the analysis of different metabolites connected with OS in biofluids, covering a period from 2015 till early 2020. The selected examples mainly include LC-MS/MS methods for isoprostanes, oxidized proteins, oxidized lipoproteins, and DNA/RNA biomarkers. The last part explains the clinical relevance of this review.
Journal: Electrophoresis
ISSN: 0173-0835
Issue: 4
Volume: 42
Pages: 402 - 428
Number of pages: 27
Publication year:2020
Keywords:Biochemistry/biophysics/molecular biology, Analytical, inorganic & nuclear chemistry