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QTL mapping using microsatellite linkage reveals target-site mutations associated with high levels of resistance against three mitochondrial complex II inhibitors in Tetranychus urticae

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

The acaricides cyflumetofen, cyenopyrafen, and pyflubumide act as inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport system at complex II (succinate dehydrogenase; SDH), a new mode of action in arthropods. The development and mechanisms of low-level resistance against cyenopyrafen and cyflumetofen have been previously reported in Tetranychus urticae. In the present study, we investigated high levels of resistance against three SDH inhibitors in T. urticae field populations and clarify the genetic basis of resistance using quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. First, we constructed a microsatellite linkage map comprising 64 markers assembled into three linkage groups (LGs) with total length of 683.8 cM and average marker spacing of 11.03 cM. We then used the linkage map to perform QTL mapping, and identified significant QTLs contributing to resistance to cyflumetofen (one QTL on LG1), cyenopyrafen (one QTL on LG3), and pyflubumide (two QTLs on LG1 and LG3). The QTL peaks on LG1 for cyflumetofen and pyflubumide overlapped and included the SdhB locus. For cyenopyrafen resistance, the QTLs on LG3 included the SdhC locus. For cyflumetofen resistance, we found an I260T mutation in SdhB. For pyflubumide and cyenopyrafen resistance, we detected I260V and S56L substitutions in SdhB and SdhC, respectively, by direct sequencing. Both I260 in SdhB and S56 in SdhC were present in highly conserved regions of the ubiquinone binding site formed at the interface among SdhB, SdhC, and SdhD. Mutations at these positions have been implicated in resistance against fungicides that act as Sdh inhibitors in various pathogens. Therefore, we consider these mutations to be target-site resistance mutations for these acaricidal SDH inhibitors.
ISSN: 1879-0240
Volume: 123
Publication year:2020