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From Pre- and Probiotics to Post-Biotics: A Narrative Review
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: gut microbiota (GM) is a complex ecosystem containing bacteria, viruses, fungi, and yeasts. It has several functions in the human body ranging from immunomodulation to metabolic. GM derangement is called dysbiosis and is involved in several host diseases. Pre-, probiotics, and symbiotics (PRE-PRO-SYMB) have been extensively developed and studied for GM re-modulation. Herein, we review the literature data regarding the new concept of postbiotics, starting from PRE-PRO-SYMB. METHODS: we conducted a search on the main medical databases for original articles, reviews, meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials, and case series using the following keywords and acronyms and their associations: gut microbiota, prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotic, and postbiotics. RESULTS: postbiotics account for PRO components and metabolic products able to beneficially affect host health and GM. The deeper the knowledge about them, the greater their possible uses: the prevention and treatment of atopic, respiratory tract, and inflammatory bowel diseases. CONCLUSIONS: better knowledge about postbiotics can be useful for the prevention and treatment of several human body diseases, alone or as an add-on to PRE-PRO-SYMB.
Journal: International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health