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Plasmodium falciparum sexual conversion rates can be affected by artemisinin-based treatment in naturally infected malaria patients

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

Background Artemisinins (ART) are the key component of the frontline antimalarial treatment, but their impact on Plasmodium falciparum sexual conversion rates in natural malaria infections remains unknown. This is an important knowledge gap because sexual conversion rates determine the relative parasite investment between maintaining infection in the same human host and transmission to mosquitoes.Methods The primary outcome of this study was to assess the impact of ART-based treatment on sexual conversion rates by comparing the relative transcript levels of pfap2-g and other sexual ring biomarkers (SRBs) before and after treatment. We analysed samples from previously existing cohorts in Vietnam, Burkina Faso and Mozambique (in total, n=109) collected before treatment and at 12 h intervals after treatment. As a secondary objective, we investi-gated factors that may influence the effect of treatment on sexual conversion rates.Findings In the majority of infections from the African cohorts, but not from Vietnam, we observed increased expression of pfap2-g and other SRBs after treatment. Estimated parasite age at the time of treatment was negatively correlated with the increase in pfap2-g transcript levels, suggesting that younger parasites are less susceptible to stim-ulation of sexual conversion.Interpretation We observed enhanced expression of SRBs after ART-based treatment in many patients, which sug-gests that in natural malaria infections sexual conversion rates can be altered by treatment. ART-based treatment reduces the potential of a treated individual to transmit the disease, but we hypothesise that under some circumstan-ces this reduction may be attenuated by ART-enhanced sexual conversion.Funding Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigaci?on (AEI), European Regional Development Fund (ERDF, European Union), Belgium Development Cooperation (DGD), Canadian University Health Network (UHN), TransGlobal-Health-Erasmus Mundus (European Union).Copyright (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) eBioMedicine 104198 Published online https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ebiom.2022.104198

Journal: EBioMedicine
ISSN: 2352-3964
Volume: 83
Publication year:2022
Keywords:Plasmodium falciparum, Sexual conversion, Artemisinin, Malaria transmission, pfap2-g, DIHYDROARTEMISININ-PIPERAQUINE, ARTEMETHER-LUMEFANTRINE, COMBINATION THERAPY, GAMETOCYTE CARRIAGE, ANTIMALARIAL-DRUGS, TRANSMISSION, RESISTANCE, COMMITMENT, REVEALS, MECHANISMS
Accessibility:Open