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Phenyltriazole-functionalized sulfamate inhibitors targeting tyrosyl- or isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
Antimicrobial resistance is considered as one of the major threats for the near future as the lack of effective treatments for various infections would cause more deaths than cancer by 2050. The development of new antibacterial drugs is considered as one of the cornerstones to tackle this problem. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are regarded as good targets to establish new therapies. Apart from being essential for cell viability, they are clinically validated. Indeed, mupirocin, an isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) inhibitor, is already commercially available as a topical treatment for MRSA infections. Unfortunately, resistance developed soon after its introduction on the market, hampering its clinical use. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new cellular targets or improved therapies. Follow-up research by Cubist Pharmaceuticals led to a series of selective and in vivo active aminoacyl-sulfamoyl aryltetrazole inhibitors targeting IleRS (e.g. CB 168).Here, we describe the synthesis of new IleRS and TyrRS inhibitors based on the Cubist Pharmaceuticals compounds, whereby the central ribose was substituted for a tetrahydropyran ring. Various linkers were evaluated connecting the six-membered ring with the base-mimicking part of the synthesized analogues. Out of eight novel molecules, a three-atom spacer to the phenyltriazole moiety, which was established using azide-alkyne click chemistry, appeared to be the optimized linker to inhibit IleRS. However, 11 (Ki,app = 88 ± 5.3 nM) and 36a (Ki,app = 114 ± 13.5 nM) did not reach the same level of inhibitory activity as for the known high-affinity natural adenylate-intermediate analogue isoleucyl-sulfamoyl adenosine (IleSA, CB 138; Ki,app = 1.9 ± 4.0 nM) and CB 168, which exhibit a comparable inhibitory activity as the native ligand. Therefore, 11 was docked into the active site of IleRS using a known crystal structure of T. thermophilus in complex with mupirocin. Here, we observed the loss of the crucial 3′- and 4′- hydroxyl group interactions with the target enzyme compared to CB 168 and mupirocin, which we suggest to be the reason for the limited decrease in enzyme affinity. Despite the lack of antibacterial activity, we believe that structurally optimizing these novel analogues via a structure-based approach could ultimately result in aaRS inhibitors which would help to tackle the antibiotic resistance problem.
Journal: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Number of pages: 15
Keywords:Biochemistry/biophysics/molecular biology, Organic & medicinal chemistry