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Patient-specific bolus for range shifter air gap reduction in intensity-modulated proton therapy of head-and-neck cancer studied with Monte Carlo based plan optimization

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) of superficial lesions requires pre-absorbing range shifter (RS) to deliver the more shallow spots. RS air gap minimization is important to avoid spot size degradation, but remains challenging in complex geometries such as in head-and-neck cancer (HNC). In this study, clinical endpoints were investigated for patient-specific bolus and for conventional RS solutions, making use of a Monte Carlo (MC) dose engine for IMPT optimization. METHODS AND MATERIALS: For 5 oropharyngeal cancer patients, IMPT spot maps were generated using beamlets calculated with MC. The plans were optimized for three different RS configurations: 3D printed on-skin bolus, snout- and nozzle-mounted RS. Organ-at-risk (OAR) doses and late toxicity probabilities were compared between all configuration-specific optimized plans. RESULTS: The use of bolus reduced the mean dose to all OARs compared to snout and nozzle-mounted RS. The contralateral parotid gland and supraglottic larynx received on average 2.9Gy and 4.2Gy less dose compared to the snout RS. Bolus reduced the average probability for xerostomia by 3.0%. For dysphagia, bolus reduced the probability by 2.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Quantification of the dosimetric advantage of patient-specific bolus shows significant reductions compared to conventional RS solutions for xerostomia and dysphagia probability. These results motivate the development of a patient-specific bolus solution in IMPT for HNC.
Journal: Radiotherapy and Oncology
ISSN: 0167-8140
Issue: 1
Volume: 128
Pages: 161 - 166
Number of pages: 6
Publication year:2018