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Overview of the current knowledge and conventional MRI characteristics of peri- and para-vascular spaces

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

Brain spaces around (perivascular spaces) and alongside (paravascular or Virchow-Robin spaces) vessels have gained significant attention in recent years due to the advancements of in vivo imaging tools and to their crucial role in maintaining brain health, contributing to the anatomic foundation of the glymphatic system. In fact, it is widely accepted that peri- and para-vascular spaces function as waste clearance pathways for the brain for materials such as ss-amyloid by allowing exchange between cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid. Visible brain spaces on magnetic resonance imaging are often a normal finding, but they have also been associated with a wide range of neurological and systemic conditions, suggesting their potential as early indicators of intracranial pressure and neurofluid imbalance. Nonetheless, several aspects of these spaces are still controversial. This article offers an overview of the current knowledge and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of peri- and para-vascular spaces, which can help in daily clinical practice image description and interpretation. This paper is organized into different sections, including the microscopic anatomy of peri- and para-vascular spaces, their associations with pathological and physiological events, and their differential diagnosis.
Journal: Brain Sciences
ISSN: 2076-3425
Volume: 14
Pages: 1 - 20
Publication year:2024
Keywords:A1 Journal article