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Optical-quality controllable wet-chemical doping of graphene through a uniform, transparent and low-roughness F4-TCNQ/MEK layer
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
Controllable chemical doping of graphene has already proven very useful for electronic applications, but when turning to optical and photonic applications, the additional requirement of having both a high transparency and a low surface roughness has, to our knowledge, not yet been fulfilled by any chemical dopant system reported so far. In this work, a new method that meets for the first time this optical-quality requirement while also providing efficient, controllable doping is presented. The method relies on F4-TCNQ dissolved in methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) yielding a uniform deposition after spin coating because of an extraordinary charge transfer interaction between the F4-TCNQ and MEK molecules. The formed F4-TCNQ/MEK layer exhibits a very high surface quality and optical transparency over the visible-infrared wavelength range between 550 and 1900 nm. By varying the dopant concentration of F4-TCNQ from 2.5 to 40 mg ml(-1) MEK, the doping effect can be controlled between Delta n - + 5.73 x 10(12) cm(-2) and + 1.09 x 10(13) cm(-2) for initially strongly p-type hydrogen- intercalated graphene grown on 6H-silicon-carbide substrates, and between Delta n = + 5.56 x 10(12) cm(-2) and + 1.04 x 10(13) cm(-2) for initially weakly p-type graphene transferred on silicon samples. This is the first time that truly optical-quality chemical doping of graphene is demonstrated, and the obtained doping values exceed those reported before for F4-TCNQ-based graphene doping by as much as 50%.
Journal: RSC Advances
Number of pages: 11
Keywords:CARBON-NANOTUBE, SOLAR-CELLS, BAND-GAP, DERIVATIVES, FILMS, FUNCTIONALIZATION, TRANSISTORS, COMPLEXES, PLASMA, FIELD, Multidisciplinary chemistry