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Intracellular localisation of platelet-activating factor during mammalian embryo development invitro: a comparison of cattle, mouse and human
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a well-known marker for embryo quality and viability. For the first time, we describe an intracellular localisation of PAF in oocytes and embryos of cattle, mice and humans. We showed that PAF is represented in the nucleus, a signal that was lost upon nuclear envelope breakdown. This process was confirmed by treating the embryos with nocodazole, a spindle-disrupting agent that, as such, arrests the embryo in mitosis, and by microinjecting a PAF-specific antibody in bovine MII oocytes. The latter resulted in the absence of nuclear PAF in the pronuclei of the zygote and reduced further developmental potential. Previous research indicates that PAF is released and taken up from the culture medium by preimplantation embryos invitro, in which bovine serum albumin (BSA) serves as a crucial carrier molecule. In the present study we demonstrated that nuclear PAF does not originate from an extracellular source because embryos cultured in polyvinylpyrrolidone or BSA showed similar levels of PAF in their nuclei. Instead, our experiments indicate that cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is likely to be involved in the intracellular production of PAF, because treatment with arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF3), a specific cPLA2 inhibitor, clearly lowered PAF levels in the nuclei of bovine embryos.
Journal: Reproduction, Fertility and Development
Pages: 658 - 670
Number of pages: 13